Walter Bailey’s Briefe Treatise on the Preservation of the Eyesight.


Walter Bailey’s

A briefe Treatise concerning the preseruation of the eie-sight.

Links: Ophthalmic texts in English from before 1800.     Christopher T. Leffler, MD, MPH.

The first publication of Bailey’s work was:

A briefe treatise touching the preseruation of the eie-sight, consisting partly in good order of diet, and partly in vse of medicines. London: R. Waldegrave, 1586.  [by Walter Bailey]

The text below is actually from the 1587 republication, when Bailey’s work was published along with Anthony Hunton’s translation of Jacques Guillemeau.

A work touching the preseruation of the sight, set forth by VV. Bailey. D. of Phisick. [London]: Printed by Robert Waldegraue for Thomas Man and VVilliam Brome, [1587?]


Bailey’s 1586 book has been described as the first ophthalmic text in English.  Today, it would be described as a preventive medicine book.  It recommends eyebright (Euphrasia) and fennel and other herbes and seedes to preserve the sight.  These can be taken in wine, ale, beer, or meade.  Bailey’s recommendations for living in moderation would be accepted today.


THE preseruation of the sight doth consist, partlye in good order of diet, partly in vse of medicines.


[sidenote: Diet]


Concerning diet, some thinges hurtfull are to be eschewed, and some thinges comfortable to the sight are to be vsed: wherefore they vvhich maye choose their habitations, in this respect, maye make election of ayre cleare, declining to moderate heat & drines:


[sidenote: Aire.]


cold and moyst aire, and thicke, misty and rainye weather is hurtfull : it is best therefore to abide in drye places, from moorie, marish, and waterish grounds, & especiallye to prouide that the site of the dwelling be not betweene the wet places and the sunne:


[sidenote: Windes, Dust, Smoke.]


Southerne wyndes do hurt the sight: so do low roomes: places full of dust and smokie are noysome.


[sidenote: Meates.]


Meates are best which are easie to bee digested, & which do not stay long in the stomacke: amongst such a young henne is greatly commended: so is Partridge and Pheasant. Rafis prayseth the young starne, and the quail: so doth all writers the Doue both tame and wild, but chiefly the vvild Doue, which (as Zoar writeth) hath especiall virtue against the vveakenes of the sight, which commeth by defect of spirits, & the rather if the same be sod with rape roots, or turnep roots: for it is accorded by all vvriters, that the turnep hath great facultye to do good to the eies, & to preserue the sight. Grosse and slimy meates, and all waterfoule are dispraised. Of small birds, the martin, the swallow, the iay and pie, the witwal, the specht are noted very hurtful to the sight: and albeit these birds are seldome, or not at all vsed of the better sort, yet common people happily may be compelled to eate them. No fish is recompted good: yet some fishes, which do skoure in grauvly places, being fauery sodden with white wine, fenill, eibright, sage, parsley, &c. may be some times be eaten and so a little salt-fishe moderately taken doth no great harme.


[sidenote: Preparation & meates.]


[sidenote: Entrals.]


Fleshe sodden vvith fenel eyebright mints sage, & c. is reputed best, next are roasted meates, fleshe fryed vvith butter or oyle is to be reiected, the entrals, & feete of beasts are not so good, nor the braines for the most part, yet the braines of an hare, f a cony, and of pygions are sayd to quicken the sight.


[sidenote: Milke.]


Milke and all things made thereof are founde by experience to induce dimness of sight:


[sidenote: Egges.]


reare rosted, reare sodden, or poched egges are holsome, especially eaten vvith the povvder of eyebright: fried eggs are hard are blamed.


[sidenote: Sauces.]


Of sauces, veriuice, vinegar of wine, and the iuices of limonds, are accompted best pomgranates, not so good.


[sidenote: Spices.]


Of spices cinnamon is commended by Auicenna, as speciall good for the vveb of the eie, and for dimness of the sight: so is saffron, ginger, both inwardly taken, and outwardly applied, doth singularly cleare the sight: cloues, mace, and nutmegs, and all three kindes of peppers, may be vsed.


[sidenote: Sugar. Honie, Oyle. Butter,]


Sugar is conuenient to condite thinges, but honie is better: no oyle is good, saue oil oliue called sallet oile, and that is better than butter.


[sidenote: Raw herbe]


Albeit few ravv herbes in common vse for sallets are commended, except fennel, eyebright, young sege, terragone, vvhiche are very good: yet these are to be avoided as most hurtfull, namely lettis, coleworts, cabbages, beets, spinage, pursline, buds of dill, garlicke, chibbols, onions, skallions, &c.


[sidenote: Capers, Oliues.]


Capers maye bee eaten: oliues not so good, radish roots, persnep rootes, are greatly dispraised:


[sidenote: Rootes. The Rape and Turnep.]


Carrot roots, the buds of asperage may be eaten, but the turnep of rape roote, and the nauew roote are aboue all other noted for excellencye to preserue the sight, and to that purpose many do preserue with sugar these roots, and eate them as sucker.


The most kinds of fruits are hurtfull to the sight yet peares and the better kinds of apples, may be eaten vvith the pouder of eyebright, or with fenill seede thinly incrusted with fine sugar: figs are very good, not onely for the sight, but also to open, scoure, and to clense the breast, liuer, stomacke, and kidneys: so are raisons, which haue a speciall property to strengthen the liuer: nuts are very euil, for that they do fil the head: the walnut more tolerable than the hasell nut, chestnuts are very vvindie, better frends for Venus, than for the eies: dates are not commended, nor mulberies.


[Sidenote: Seeds.]

[Sidenote: Drinkes.]

[Sidenote: Beere.]


Confects made vvith fine sugar, & thinly incrusted about with turnip seedes, and nauew seeds, fenill-seeds, annis-seedes, almonds, pineapple kernels, ginger, Cimmamom, the powder of eyebright, &c. are reputed as very good meanes to continue the sight, likewise, in the preseruation of the sight, amonst other thinges, such drinks, as are in common vse & accustomed, are to be allowed: therefore hee that hath vsed to drinke beere, may not forsake the same, and so in ale.


And in this respect it is not amisse at meat to drink wine, for them which haue bene accustomed to the same : although vvine in some affects of the eies is forbidden, yet to preserue the sight, wine is not inconuenient, for the vapors of wine are drying, clear, abstersiue, and do consume & extenuate grosse and thick humors, so it be moderately taken.


[Sidenote: Medicinall drinkes.]


In this place I do greatly commend their councels, vvhich do prepare medicinable drinks with eyebright, and other things comfortable for the sight, to be vsed in the morning, and at meats, if the patient can wel endure so to drinke the same: our authours herein are verye ingenious, some addressing drinkes vvith one thing, and some vvith another.


[Sidenote: Drinke made with eibright.]


The simplest and moste vvritten of, is with the herb called of the Arabians Adhill, in latine Euphragia, in English Eiebright, of vvhole miraculous vertues in preseruation of the sight:


[Sidenote: Arnoldus of villa nova.]

[Sidenote: The prayse of eyebright for the sight.]


Arnoldus de villa nova hath vvritten in these vvordes: Eiebright is good, any way taken, either with meate, drinke or medicine, greene & dry, against all impediments of the sight, wher by the clearness fo the same may bee obscured



[Sidenote: Eibright wine]


And he writeth thus of wine made with eyebright, vvhich he calleth vinum euphragiatum. This wine (saith he) is made by putting the herbe in the must or newe wine, vntill the same vvine become clear to be dronke. By the vse of this vvine, old mens sights are made yoong, it taketh avvay the impediments of the sight in all men, of all ages, especially in fat men, and such, vvhich do abounde vvith flegme.  One (saith he) which was blind, & did see nothing in long time, by vsing this vvine one yeare, was restored to his sight. The herbe is hot and dry, and hath by property of substance to remooue affects of the sight.


[Sidenote: Eiebright taken in an egg.]


And so the povvder of the herbe taken in an egge, or dronke in wine, doeth wonderfully perform the same. And there are yet aliue (saith he) vvitnesses of good credite, vvhich haue made proofe hereof in themselues which could not read without spectacles, by vse hereof haue recouered their sight, to reade small letters. And so Arnoldus concludeth, that nothing to do good to the sight, is to be compared with wine made with eyebright. If the wine be too strong, he councelleth to alay the same vvith fenill-vvater, and to that intention, you may also add sugar.


In countries which for their common drinks do vse vvine and water, they always do mingle things for the sight in vvine, & not in vvater: for vvine in truth is a fitter liquor to receiue the qualities and to cary the same to the eies, than vvater: vvhiche things they do put in the must, and to let it stand vntill the vvine be ripe, and ready to be drunken, and so do vse it.


[Sidenote: Eibright must be vsed in beere, ale of meade.]


Notvvithstanding in other countries vvhich haue other vsuall drinkes, the same things may be put in their common drinks. So some haue put them in ale, some in beere, and some in meade, and no doubt but al these meanes are very good according ot the vsage and disposition of the partie. So euen in this our country, they vvhich either by vse or by constitution of body may vvel bear the drinking of vvine may vvel compound the same vvith things good for the sight: others of hotte complexions and drye, not greatly accustomed to vvine may of ale, beer, and mead, make such drinks because in the North-countries, ale and beere are the vsuall and common drinkes, and in some places, meade, also is much vsed: therefore in mine opionion it is conuenient for most men to make these drinkes vvith ale, beere, and meade, rather than vvith wine: and meade assuredly is a verye conuenient thing for them vvhich can vvel avvay vvith honie.


[Sidenote: How eibright wine may bee vsed.]


Touching the direction of those which haue bene accustomed to drink wine, I do nothing doubt, but that they may vvithout offence bear such drinks for the sight compounded wit wine, to take a draught in the morning, especially if they allay the same with the distilled water of fenell, according to Arnoldus councel.



[Sidenote: The vse of eyebright ale, & of eyebright beere.]


[Sidenote: Ale made with grout.]


And for this purpose, choyse maye bee made of verye good white wine, and the things may bee mingled in the countries where the vvine doth grovv, notwithstanding in that our most vsed drink vvith meat is ale, or beer, these are veryconuenient to receue these things for the sight, and absolutely better than vvine, if yee like to drinke the same vvith meate, as our authors do councell: which ale I think better to be made with grout according to the old order of bruing.


[Sidenote: How to make eyebright ale or beere.]


And so the thinges for the sight may be sodden in the grout, or othervvay put in the drink, when it is newly clensed, and put into the vessel in vvhich it is turned to bee kept, that in the vvoorking of the drinke in the vessel, the vertues and qualities of the things may be drawn and receiued into the same.


[Sidenote: Eiebright meade.]


VVhen these things are compounded in mead, then the same are sodden vvith the honye, in such order as other hearbes are sodden, vvhen they make methegline.


[Sidenote: The quantity of eibright in the drinke.]


I think it best to begin vvith the simplest order to compound ale or beere to ech mans best liking with eyebright only, taking to euerye gallon of the drinke a great handful of the herbe, and bynde it together or put it in raw and thin thinsell of silke, and so tie the same by a string to the tap of the vessel, that the herbe maye hand in the midest of the drinke, not too low in the grounds, neither to high in the barme, being put into the drinke vvhen it is newly clensed: let al worke together vntill the drinke be clear & ripe, to be drunken according to the common vse, and then ye may drinke of it at pleasure, in the morning fasting, and at meate also if you vvill, and can well like thereof, and moste men maye like to drinke it, because thys herbe doth yield no vngratefull taste, but rather with a pleasant vapour doth commend the drinke:


[Sidenote: Fenill-seeds]


it vvere not amisse to avoide vvindiness, to euery handful of the herbe, to ad tvvo drammes of fenil seeds, vvell dusted, and a little bruised.  As I doe put this for more proportion to beginner vvith all, that the stomatcke be not at the first, offended vvith the straungenes: So after a time, yee may increase the quantity, and put to euery gallon of the drincke tvvo handfuls of the herbe, vvherein yee may best be directed by tho tast, that the herbe shall yeelde into the drinke. In the vvinter season yee may also ad some spices, as ginger, vvole mace, a fevv cloues, nutmegs, cinnamon, and make as it vvere bragget-ale: vvhich drinke beside that it doth preserue and cleere the sight, vvil also help digestion, clense and cut phlegme, and breake vvinde.


[Sidenote: The effect confirmed by examples.]


I can vvitnes, that many by this simple composition of eyebright and fenil seeds, haue found great good for their sight, not only to continue in good estate, but also that some haue found remedy against the dimness and other impediments, grovving in their sight. In truth once I met vvith an old man in Shropshire called M. Hoord about the age of 84 yeares, vvho had at that time perfit sight and did reade small letters very vvel vvithout spectacles, hee tolde me, that about the age of 40 yeares, he finding his sight to decay, he did vse eibright in ale for his drink, & did also eate the povvder thereof in aneg three daies in a week, being so taught of his father, who by the like order continued his sight in good integrity to a very long age. I haue heard the same confirmed by many olde men. Rovvland Sherlooke an Irish man, phisition to Queen Mary, did affirme for truth that a Bishop in Ireland perceiuing his sight to wax dim, about his age of fifty yeares, by the vse of eiebright taken taken in powder in an eg did lieu to the age of 80 yeares, vvith good integrity of sight.


[Sidenote: Drinkes more compounded for the sight.]


VVe do reade of many drinkes to preserue the sight, compounded not of eiebright only, but of many moe things added so some put to it sage, some veruain, some celendine, and fenell-seedes, anis-seeds, & the forenamed spices: others elecatapane roots, iris, galengale & cubebs, and in truth al these are greatly commended to preserue the sight, and maye verie aptly be put in drinkes for the sight:


[Sidenote: The most compound not alwaies best.]


notvvithstanding, for that we are now to deliuer a drinke for the sight, vvhich may be pleasing and allovved vvith meates, mine opinion is that the same ought to be made as simple as may be, for if Gallen in his 6. booke de Sanitate suenda, doth prefer the composition of the medicin termed diatrion piperion, vvhich hath fewest simples, because (as he writeth) that is soonest and with less trouble to nature digested: surely the drinkes for the sight, which are compounded of fewest things, are most to be commended, especialy when we mean to vse the same with meat, as all our avthors do councel: vvherfore, for my part at this time, I wil only aduise to haue for vse, either wine, or ale, or beere, according to each mans best likeing, made as is before prescribed with eiebright and fenel-seeds & to drink of the same in the morning or if it so like, vvith meat, as other drinke.


[Sidenote: Drinke often in smal draughts.]


It is holden better to drink oft & small draughts at meat, then seldome and great drafts: for so meat and drinke will better mingle, and the meate will lesse swim in the stomack, which giueth cause of many vapors to the head:


[Sidenote: Not best to begin the meale with drinke.]


it is affirmed not good to begin the meale with drinke, but to eat somevvhwat before yon drinke.


[Sidenote: Men to mingle water with wine,]


VVhen you drinke wine, if you mean to allay the same with water, it is best to mingle to the wine fennell-water, or eiebright vvater, and Montagnana doth councel to do the same some reasonable time before you do drinke, and not presently vvhen you drinke, as commonly men do.


[Sidenote: Bread,]


Bread in our intention is to be made of fine flower of chosen vvheat, always leuened & salted somewhat more, than common bread well wrought, thoroughly baked, not new nor old, of about a day or a daies old.


[Sidenote: Paste, with fenil seedes.]


Vnleuened bread is not accompted good, and the bread is better, if fenel-seeds be wrought with the past: to whiche purpose, some do cause cakes to be made of some portion of the dow, in which they knead the povvder of fenel-seeds, and the povvder of eyebright, and do eat them in the morning, and after drink the eybright drinke and make that a breakfast.


[Sidenote: Euacuation.]


As generallye in the preseruation of health: so especialy to continue the sight, it is conuenient that the body be obedient, and do his office for euacuation accordingly: and if nature herein be slack, it may bee procured vvith brothes made of loose herbes, as mallovves, violet leaues, mercury, groudsel, great raisons the stones taken out, damaske prunes and currants: and if need be of more medicinall things. Surelye the same must bee gentle: for as strong medicines, vvhich make agitation of humours are not good to bee vsed for this intention: so gentle medicines taken in devv time, do great good to the sight: vvhich I do leaue to the appointment & direction of a learned phisition. Of all maner of euacuations, these vvhiche are done by vomiting are most hurtfull: so are fluxes of bloude by the nose. And as belkes do ease the stomack, so much belking giueth occasion that fumes do arise to the forepart of the head, vvhereby the sight may be harmed.


[Sidenote: Ine: hurtful]


Nothing is more hurtful to health than fulnes. And he that wil continu his sight good, must bee carefull of ouer plentifull feeding, and therefore must end his meals with appetite: and neuer lay gorge vpon gorge, but so feede, that the former meate may be concocted, before hee do eat again. It is best to make light suppers, & somewhat timely.


[Sidenote: of venus]


As modest vse of venus performed in the feare of God in due time, vvhen the meate in the stomacke is digested, and nature is desirous to be disburdned, is to be allowed: to immoderate and vnseasonable vse thereof, doth of all things most hurt the sight, and sonest induce blindness:



[Sidenote: sleepe and watching.]


ouermuch watching is not good: very long sleepes are more hurtful: the mean sleepes of about vij houres, are best: yet better to abridge the sleepe & to inlarge watching, than contrariwise: sleep taken in the night is best as most natural, when externall aire doth not distract natures motion, and al external things concurre to helpe sleepe, therefore the mor houres a man do borrovve of the day for sleep, the worser. It is not good especially to this our purpose, to sleepe immediately after meate: for tvvo houres at the least ought to be put between meat and sleep. Best to begin sleep vpon the right side, & then to turne on the left side: to sleep vpright vpon the backe is naught generally: to turne vppon the face, vvorser for the sight.


[Sidenote: The moone-shine hurtfull to the sight]


Care must bee had that you sleepe not in a chamber, or any place, in vvhich the moon doth shine.


[Sidenote: Exercises.]


Exercises are needful: the same best: after the belly hath done his office, that the excrements are auoided: otherwise by exercise vapors are stirred, and do aseende more plentifully to the head: All exercises must be done fasting, & none after meat.


[Sidenote: writing after meat]


And I wishe you might after meate forbear writing, by the space of three hours: but if your course of life and calling vvill not so permit you, yo u may herein follow Montagnana his councell, to vvrite either standing vpright, or a little leaning or resting your heade vppon your right or left cheek: in no case to vvrite bovving your selfe forward, and holding down the head.


[Sidenote: Frictions.]


VVhen opportunity and time vvill serue, frictions vvith a rough linen cloath are very good, vvhiche are to bee performed thus: first to rub the feet, the legs, then the thighs, the hips, the buttockes, so ascending to the shoulders and neck vvith soft and long rubbings, euen vntill the partes begin to vvax red.


[Sidenote: combing of the head.]


Auicenna vvriteth that the combing of the head is not of least force, vvhiche ought to be done euery morning falling backvvards against the haire, for it dravveth the vapors out of the head, and remoueth them from the sight.


[Sidenote: affections of the minde.]


Mirth, ioy, nad pleasantness of the mind, is good: a little anger doth not hurt: immoderate sorrovv, fearefulnes, and all vehement affections are forbidden in all affectes, but in this our case chiefly, as most hurtfull to the sight.


To preserue the sight by medicines.


The order to preserue the sight by medicines, doth consist of thinges outvvardly applied , and invvardly taken.


[Sidenote: Outward medicines.]

[Sidenote: the smell of marierum.]


Amongst outvvard medicines to preserue the sight, it is accounted a great secret, to smell much to marierum. So these things follovving, are found very much to comfort the sight in staying the visible spirits from vvasting: videlices, corall, pearle, the stone called Lapis Armenius, spectacles of cristaline or cleare and pure glasse, greene and skie colours, to dippe the eies in cold vvater,


[Sidenote: Eie cups.]


to vvhiche purpose, manye haue cups made in the forme of an eie, called eie-cups: and to vvash the eies vvith the vvaters or decoctions of eyebright, roses, and veruaine.


[Sidenote: Things put into the eies]


Some other things are put into the eies to clear the sight, and to remooue impediments vvhiche do often grovv there: to vvhich purpose as approued very good & vvithout hurt, the iuyces and vvaters of eyebright, of fenill, of veruaine, of marigolds, of pearlvvort are greatly commended. And Montagnana doth mention of a certaine kinde of preparation of the iuice of fenill, singular good to preserue the sight from dimness, to take the iuice of fenell in the moneth of April, and to put it in a vessel of glasse, vvith a long and narrovve necke, and let it stand fifteen dayes in the sunne, that it maye bee vvell dried, then remooue the glasse softly, that you do not trouble the residew, or groundes, and so poure it into another vessel:



[Sidenote: Lignum aloes good for the sight]


and to euerye halfe pound of the iuice, put an ounce of chosen liganum aloes, beaten into fine pouder, and let it stand other fifteen dayes in the sunne:

then straine tit wise through a thick cloth and keepe the clearest in a vessel of glasse to your vse: you may drop a little hereof into your eies to clear the sight. And som doo distill this woode in a fullatorye of  glasse, and put the water thereof into the eies, and hold this for a great secret as miraculous to preserue the sight.


[Sidenote: Sal gemma doth cleare the sight.]


And the same Montagnana doth compound an other medicine more abstersiue to remedy the dimness of the sight, dissoluing in an ounce of the vvater of rosemary flovvers, tvvo scruples of Sal gemma verye finelye povvdered, and filtered, and councelleth to drop the same often into the eies: affirming by his experience, that it doth so mightily cleare the sight, and suffusions are thereby vvonderfully remooued, and especially moystures of the eies.

I am here also in this place for the clensing and strenghning o fthe eies, especiallye to commend vnto you, the frequent vse of old and cleare white wine in which the Calavinar stone hath bin oftentimes extinguished: & likevvise the pure liquor of good suger candye dissolued in the vvhite of an egge, being hard rosted and the yolke taken out.


[Sidenote: the vrine of a child.]


Also our authors doo commend the washing of the eies with the vrine of a child, and sometimes to drop the same into the eies:


[Sidenote: A lie of fenil-stalkes.]


and for this purpose also they do commend lie made of the ashes of fenil-stalks.  VVe do read in all our vvriters great commendations, of a liquor of the liuer of a goat, prepared in maner following.


[Sidenote: A preparation of the liuer of a goat for the sight]


Take the liuer of a male goat, not diseased, newly killed: & after it is wel washed, pricke it in many places, & fil the same vvith grains of pepper, and infarce the liuer vvith the leaues of fenill and of eyebright, then rost it vvith a soft fire cleare, not smoky vntill it be reasonably rosted: and in the time of rosting, receiue the liquor vvhich doth distill, in a conuenient vessel, and apply the same to your vse.

Auicenna in his third fen, and thirde booke and 4 treatise, cap. De debilitate visus, aboue al other things doth commend the medicine called collyrium de fellibus for that it cleseth the pores of the eyes, cleareth and conserueth the spirits, mundifieth the moystures or vvaters of the sight: as you may read in Auicenna in the foresaide place.


Inward Medicines.

Medicines to be taken invvardly are in number many: but I thinke best at this time to mention a fevv, vvhich are easie to be had, and as of great efficacye most commended.


[Sidenote: A powder for the sight.]


And of such, the powder follovving is most simple. Yet be experience, approoued of suche force, that many after their sight hath bene decaied, haue by the vse of it, receiued againe the same perfectly. The povvder is this made.


[Sidenote; A sirup for the sight.]


Take of the povvder of eyebright [non-Latin alphabet]. Of mace [non-Latin alphabet] mingle them together, and take thereof the vvaight of three pence before meate.

Montanus in his 92 counsel giueth great praise to a sirupe, against the decay of the sight, through the weaknes and dimness of the same, vvhich hee compoundeth thus.

Take of the iuices of fenill, of veruaine of roses, of each [non-Latin alphabet] the leaues of the herb eyebright, of endiue, of celandine, of ech [non-Latin alphabet] boyle the herbes in tvvo pintes of vvater vntill halfe be spent, then straine it hard, and mingle the iuices vvith the decoction, and vvith sugar according to and make a sirupe, vvhiche is to bee kept in a glasse vessel. You maye take tvvo ounces of this sirup in three ounces of the vvater of eyebright in the morning fasting. In vvindie bodies hee maketh the sirup thus.

Take of fenil seeds, of anis-seeds, of ech [non-Latin alphabet] of the herbes eyebright of veruain, of drye rose leaues, of each M. iii. Of celandine M. i. of rhue. M. i. [non-Latin alphabet]. Boyle these in vvater vntill halfe bee consumed: straine it hard, & vvith sugar sirupize the decoction. both these are excellent good to defend the sight from dimness.


[Sidenote: An excellent electuarye to preserue the sight.]


Messue in his booke called Grabadin, vvriting of the diseases of the eies, aboue all other medicins extolleth an electuarie vnder the name of Humain, as hauing noble vertues to preserue the eies, and to continue the visible spirits in their clearness, vvhich hee compoundeth thus.

Take the herbe called Adhill, that is eyebright, [non-Latin alphabet] fenil-seeds [non-Latin alphabet]  v. mace, cubebs, cinnamon, long pepper, cloues of each [non-Latin alphabet] i. beate all into povvder, teare it, then take of good hony clarified lib. i. of the iuices of fenill boyled and clarified [non-Latin alphabet] of the iuices of rhue, of celandine, both boyled and clarified of each [non-Latin alphabet] boyle all to the height of an electuary, & then put to it the povvders according to art, and so reserue it in glasse vessels. You may take hereof the quantitie of [non-Latin alphabet] iij. In vvine as Mesue writeth. If vvine seem too hot you may allay it vvith fenill-vvater, or vvith eibright water: it must be taken in the morning fasting: and you ought to forbeare the taking of other things, by the space of three houres, and so at night, but then you must make a light supper, and suppe the more timely.

VVhere in this little Treatise mention is made of distilled vvaters, I vvishe the same to be artificially done in fullatories of glasse, that the qualities of the herbes may remaine in the distilled vvaters. And therefore I do not allovve of the common manner of distilling in fullatories of lead, by the vvhich the vvatery parts only are dravven.




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