A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes. Hunton’s translation of Guillemeau’s Treatise. 1587.
A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes: Transcription of Certain Sections of Hunton’s 1587 translation of Guillemeau’s treatise.
Guillemeau’s book was the 1585 Traite des maladies de l’oeil: qui sont en nombre de cent treize, ausquelles il est suject.
The following is a transcription of certain sections of the translation of Guillemeau’s book. It is by no means complete.
Links: Ophthalmic Texts in English from before 1800. Christopher T. Leffler, MD.
A worthy treatise of the eyes contayning the knowledge and cure of one hundred and thirtene diseases, incident vnto them: first gathered & written in French, by Iacques Guillemeau, [Jacques Guillemeau] chyrurgion to the French King, and now translated into English, togeather with a profitable treatise of the scorbie; & another of the cancer by A.H. [Anthony Hunton] Also next to the treatise of the eies is adoiyned a work touching the preseruation of the sight, set forth by VV. Bailey. [Walter Bailey] D. of Phisick. [The adjacent works on scurvy and cancer are translations of works by Johann Weyer and Benoit Textor] [London]: Printed by Robert Waldegraue for Thomas Man and VVilliam Brome, [1587?].
[The Anatomie of the Eie.]
Of the rampires & defenses of the eies.
And concernying the eye lyddes wherewyth they are defended and couered: they are not onlelie an ornamente, but also as gates and drawing bridges, hauing their muscles as chaines to lift them vp, and let them downe when it shalbe expedient, either in seing, sleeping, or waking, and to stay whatsoeuer might fallinto them, and on their edges they haue the haires called Cilia, which are as little pales straight & sure placed in a conuenient distaunce one from another, that they might mutuallie imbrace eche other, whereby the eie should be more surelie shut. Moreouer, they serue to directe the beames in seeing, that they may looke more straightlie, and in like maner to defend them against litle flies, against the dust, against little chips or shiuers, aand such like thinges, which entring into them might hurt them: and they doe also beautifie them being set round about them as a little border…
For the humors in all persons are alwaies of like colour, but the circle named Iris is not so, because in some men it appeareth more blacke, in others more white or blew, according to the diuersitie of the colours which are in the membrane called vuea. It was named Iris, which in Englishe signifieth a Ranbow, because in it do appear such change of colours as are seen in the Rainbow.
[sidenote: The second coat of the eie.]
The second membrane or partchment skinne is named Cornea, that is, hornie, which is more strong and hard, resembling horn that is made thin & bright, euen such wherof Lanternes are made, from the likenesse wherof it seemeth to haue been named Cornea, that is horny. Now god hath so created it, that it should bee a surer defence to all the humors of the eies, & to help the light which the eies receiue into them, through whose middest it shineth & sendeth out the light euen as teh candle which is in the Lantern, casteth his light toward the horn wherof the same is made…
…The fourth membrane is named in Greek amphyblestroides, which in English signifieth a casting net, which taketh his beginning from the sinew of sight called neruus opticus, whose coat is stretched foorth, and vvouen like to a net of manie veines and arteries, which it receiueth from teh membrane vuea, both for his nourishment and life, and for the glassie humor wherewith it is clothed on the hinder part.
[sidenote: The 5 coat.]
The fift is called Arachnoides, because it resembleth the spiders webbe, which is in greeke arachne, whose beginning as some think is from pia mater, but as others affirme, from teh crystalin humor to wit, from teh superfluous matter & excrement of the same. His vse is to enwrap the said humor in all the former parte. Ambrose Pare reporteth one most excellent commodity of the same: that it serueth to the cristaline humor, as a glasse to behold, so that it is vnto it as Lead, whereby it falleth out that the diuers sorts and kindes of visible things whichare sent from any part of the object, that is from the thing which is offered to our sight, may bee retained in the saide humor by such coniunction, and linking of each to other, as we see in a looking glasse that is made of glasse and Lead, which hath force and power to stay the outwarde face and image from passing through, but holdeth them as it were gathered on a heap in the vppermost part of it.
[section 1. Anatomie of the Eie.]
Of the humors vvhich are in the eies
[sidenote: The waterish humor.]
Concerning the humors whereof the eie is made, the first called aqueus, that is, the waterish humor, because it is not vnlike water settled in teh formost part of it, betweene the hornie membrane and that which is called Vuea, and some part of the crystaline humor.
[sidenote: The vse of the humor]
It hath the fist place that it may bridle and stay the raging colours which come vpon it, and that the hornie membrane should not presse down that humor which filleth almost that part of the eye.
Celsus hath obserued that betweene the waterish and cristal humor, ther is a place as it were emptie, being onely filled with bright shining spirite, wherein the Cataracts are engendered, as we will shevv in the proper place. There is a further commoditie of this humor to keepe by his moysture the crystall humor, from too much drinesse.
[sidenote: 2. The christalin humor.]
The second humor is the Crystall, so tearmed, for the resemblaunce it hath vnto Crystall in vvhitenesse and shining, to the ende it might more easilie receiue the diuersitie fo colours, as wee see onely vvhite doth.
[sidenote: The place and vse.]
His seat is in the middest betvveen the vvaterish and glassie humor, not onlie ministring nourishment and moysture, and so preseruing from drinesse, but also to helpe and preserue the same, and to moderate & appease the rage of spirites and colours, which might hurte it.
[sidenote: The forme of it.]
The fashion of it is rounde, vvhich more easily resisteth outvvarde iniuries: for this figure is hardlie hurt, because it hath no corners. It is true that the roundnesse of it is somevvhat pressed and pinched before and behind, but so that therby it remaineth more sure and stedfast in the place, vvhiche vvas harde to bee done in a round figure. Againe by this compression, the colours of such things as we see are retained without any dispersing on either side, vvhiche they must of necessitye haue done, if the figure & shape had been perfectly round.
[sidenote: Howe it is nourished.]
It receiueth norishment from the glassie humour, by the helpe of the little veines & arteries vvhich it imparteth vnto it. And it is necessarily required that the glassie humour shoulde make vvhite the blood before it passe to teh Cristall humor: for if it vver nourished vvith pure blood vvhich vvere not vvhite as it is necessarily required. It is giuen to teh eie as the first instrument of sight, and therefore it is in it as a little cleer Cristall glasse.
[sidenote: This humor hath light of it selfe.]
And albeit the other humors do so shine, that the light may passe through them as ti doth thorovv vvater or glasse: notvvithstanding they haue no light of themselues as hath the Christallin humor, vvhich coulde not receiue the light vvhiche it receiueth outvvardly, if it vvere not partaker of the same vvithin, & so partaker that it agreed naturallie vvith the same.
[sidenote: It is the first instrument of sight.]
And to proue that it is the first instrument of sight thus it is plain, that after it shall be taken out of the eie, & laide vpon anie thing vvritten or imprinted, it shevveth the letter tvvofold greater then it is in it selfe:
[sidenote: Inuention of spectacles.]
and from this obseruation it is supposed that men learned the vse of spectacles.
[sidenote: The glassie humor.]
The thirde is the glassie humour, so called because in his substance and colour it is like cleare shining glasse vvhen it is melted: it is hollovv in the middest to the ende it might keepe the Cristallin humor vvhereunto it is in place of a covvshin,
[sidenote: The place of it.]
as the vvaterie humor is placed in the former part of the eye: so is this in the hinder part for this purpose, that it may represse and keepe insubiection somtimes the furious spirites vvhich come vppon the Cristallin humor.
[sidenote: How it is nourished.]
It is nourished by meanes of the veines & arteries vvhich spring from the membrane called of the fourme of a casting net, Amphiblestroides,
[sidenote: The greatnes of it.]
the greatnesse hereof is threefolde, exceeding both the other membranes.
[The Anatomie of the Eie, cont’d.]
Of the sinevves, veines, and arteries, of the eyes.
The eyes are indevved vvyth tvvo sortes) of nerues or sinevves vvhereof the first are called optici in Greeke, and visuales in Latine, vvhich is in Englishe sinevves pertaining to sight, vvhereof either eie hath one proper vnto it, which differ from other sinewes, because they are neither of so sound and firm substance but soft, and within full of little holes (albeit this hollovvnesse is not so euident in them that are dead) vvhich are as small Conduit pypes and little gutters, to carrie vnto the eies the spirites of sight, vvhich in manner of a little flame do issue from the light, by whose help they receiue from the brain both life and povver to see. But before they come to the eyes, after they are gone out from the braines, they are gathered togeather like as the yron in a Mill, and make but one only body and conduit, vvhereby the spirite of sight is carried out vvholie and conioyntlie, vvhich appeareth in this, that one eye beeing closed, the apple of the other doth so inlarge it selfe, that by the passage thereout of the vvhole spirit, vve may see as fullie and certainelie vvith one only as vvith both the eyes. This vnion vvas necessarie, least vvhen one thing is offered to our sight, vve should haue beheld tvvo, to vvitte, vvith either eye one, so that in looking vpon one man, vvee might suppose to haue seene tvvo…
The Second Section containing such diseases as befall the vvhole eye.
Of the eie that falleth out of the place, which disease is called in greek ecpiesmos or proptosis, and in latine prolapsus, exitus, expressio, exertio.
Also of the Oxe eie, or great eie, which is in Greeke named exophalmia, in latine oculi prominentia, of the common sort gogle eye.
Exophthalmia, is a standing out, a lifting vp, aud as it vvere a casting foorth of the eie from the hollownesse and circle vvherein it is set and placed as a precious stone within his collet.
Touching the generall cure, blood letting is most necessarie, and in that place speciallie vvhere the paine and inflammation appeareth, and in like maner apply the cupping glasses, vvith scarrifiying vpon the shoulders & neck and if it seeme needfull because of the great abundance of humors, you may use purging, and cut of somevvhat in the dyet of the patient. But concerning particular remedies, as the causes are diuers, so must the medicines bee diuers. For if the stroke be round, or the eye in the thrusting out doe hang, then first of all, let him vvith his hand put it into the place againe, pressing it dovvne gentlie vvith his hande, and vvhen it is either vvholie or in part thus put againe into the place, he must lay on it little stupes made of fine linnen cloathes, or such like, vvetting them in Rose vvater, Plantin vvater, and the vvhite of an egge, or rather make your medicine of an egge, oyle of Roses & vvine, as Aetius appoynteth, or some such like.
vse things to mollifie & soften the muscles & membranes which may keepe it in his place, then applye a fomentation with a binding decoction made of the pil of the Pomegranate, Sehphearde’s purse, Endiue, Poppie, therby to make the part strong, & vpon it lay a Cataplasm of Beane flovver, Roses, Frankensence, and the vvhite of an Egge.
And for this purpose Celsus commendeth this Collyrium, that is the eie salue of Nilens R. Nardi Indici, iuyce of Poppy, ana [non-Latin alphabet] Gum, [non-Latin alphabet] Saphron [non-Latin alphabet] leaus of fresh roses, [non-Latin alphabet] seeth themin rain water or tart vvine. Now following this patterne you may appoint this prescription. R. of Spicknard [non-Latin alphabet] leaues of roses fresh P, i, the Pomgranate pill [non-Latin alphabet] ij. & seeth them in rain water, [non-Latin alphabet] iiij then dissolue them in of teh iuyce of blacke Poppie [non-Latin alphabet] j. Saffron [non-Latin alphabet] make your Collyrium In it you shall wet linnen cloathes, folded together commonlie called stupes, to be laid vpon the eie. They may vse also this Cataplasm. R. of the leaues of Poppy & Henbane, ana, m, i. Sorrel leaues & Plantin ana, m, i. [non-Latin alphabet] red Roses, m i seeth them in water with dried Rosins, put them to [non-Latin alphabet] ii. of Mirh and the yoke of one egge. make it a cataplasme, & apply it to the eie.
[p. 7. Section 2.]
Atrophia opthalmou is an affection of the eye when’al the parts of it are leaner and slenderer than they ought, and the vvhole eie smaller and lesser than naturallie it should be, vvherupon there appeareth an hollovv deepenesse, it being sunck downe within the circle, and the sight being darkened & dimmed in such sorte, that the thinges vvhich they looke vppon doe seeme much greater than they are. This affection differeth from Pthisis, that is consumption of the eie, because therein is onelie a diminishing of the apple of the eie, and not of the whole eie.
…Notwithstanding P. Aegineta vsed this R. ammo [non-Latin alphabet] i crocomag [non-Latin alphabet] iiij. croci [non-Latin alphabet] ij. erug. [non-Latin alphabet] i.
[p. 9. Section 1.]
Rexis is taken generally for the seperation or dissolution of any fleshlie part without a wound: notvvithstanding Galen placeth it amonst the particular affections of the eies, affirming it to bee a cutte or wounde made by stroke or anie other cause in the bottome of the eye, which sodainely diuiding asuner the membranes or partchmentlike skinne, the humours which gouerne the sence of sight are poured out, and scattered abroad.
For proofe of their speache they bring the triall which hath bene made on a pgeons eyes, whereof they crushed forth the humors, which neuerthelesse in fifteene dayes they haue found recouered and restored, and the eyes as plaine and sound as before, which I am able to testifie that I haue seene, but it is not nor hath not beene proued true in any man.
For my part I haue sene much of the waterish humour issue forth when the needle hath bene plucked forth, which was thrust in to take away the cataracts, and afterward in short time the eye hath beene as full great and faire as at the beginning: which yet could not be if all the humors were lost.
Synchisis is a breaking or cutting of the eie comming by a stroke or of itself, in the innermost membranes vvith a dispearsing or ouerturning of the humours,and alteration of the apple of teh eie, which in the beginning standeth foorth largely, but in the end is made lesse then nature affoordeth it: the humours of the eie in like manner possesse not their naturall place, neither keepe their appointed order, but are carryed hyther and thither, and mingled together (as we say) head ouer head.
[p. 14. Section 1]
Oedema is taken in auncient vvriters for all kindes of tumors or svvelling, but here vve vse it particuarlie according to Galen for a blovving or puffing vp of the eye, vvhen it is lifted vp on high, looseth his naturall colour, and is hardlie moued, the vvhite part being higher lifted vp then the blacke: or as Aetius vvoulde haue it, vvhen the eye (vvithout any manifest cause) becommeth puffed vppe. svvolne, and discoloured, through the flovving vnto it of sharpe thin humors vvhich stirr vp itching.
In curing of this maladie, we must looke to that cause which went before, that it may be turned away by frications or rubbinges on the neck back, and armes, by cupping vpon the shoulders, by good diet, by auoyding all meates which send up vapours, and principally strong wines. In particular you must vse fomentations, which do partlie resolue, partlye comfort, applying them with a Sponge as Aetius ordaineth. Take of flowers of Camomill and Melilot an. p. i. red Roses, p. ij Sage and Betonie ana p. i. of Fene-greeke, Anise, Fenell, Line seeds ana iij. seethe them in equall portions of tart wine and Spring vvater, apply it with a sponge.
[p. 16. Section 1.]
Anthracosis ina generall sense, is a hard, crustie, fretting vlcer with flowing of humors, & swelling arising in anie part of the body, but speciallie in the eies about the beginning of pestilent Feuers hurting not onely the eie, but also the eie-lids. It hapneth sometimes through great inflamations, or rather by melancholike blood boiling & remaining in that place.
For applying medicines to the place affected, if the Carbuncle bee on the eie lids, Aetuis commendeth a medicine made of Coriander, and Nightshade beaten together with dried Rasins, and laid to teh Carbuncle.
[p. 19. Section 1]
Of the moist, running, or vveeping eie, called in greek Reuma opthalmou, in latine Fluxus oculi, delachrymatio.
RHeusma opthalmou is a flovving of thin humours, vvhich in such sort against the will, fall downe into the eyes, that there cannot be anie means found to stay them. And it vvill soone stirre vp an inflammatio, and blearednes, in manie tormenting them all their life without admitting any cure.
Aetus doth much commend this eie salue, vvhich procureth no great pain nor heat. R. aeris vst [non-Latin alphabet] iii. cadmis [non-Latin alphabet] iii. opii, myrrh ana. [non-Latin alphabet] iiii. acaciae, gum arab. ana. [non-Latin alphabet] vii.
And when all the former remedies will not preuaile the most singular meane to cure is the cutting of the veines and arteries of the head and temples vvhich dravveth out the humour if it flovve invvard, and cutteth off the course of it, if it be outvvard. For the better perfecting of this woorke, let the diseased partie be set on a bed, or in a chaire, or binde his necke vvitha Tovvel put about it, vvrithing both ends together that being strait it may presse his neck: let him hold in his breath a short time that thereby the veines and arteries may svvell and appeare more plainlie: For by this meanes the blood and spirites will rise vp, and fill the veines and arteries. Then vvith your Launcet open vvether you vvill, making no greater an issue then you doe in common blood-letting, letting run forth so much blood as shall be expedient, vvhich that it may come foorth more speedilie, make straighter sometimes your Tovvell: vvhen hee hath bled sufficientlie, the Rovvler or Tovvell shalbe taken from his necke, and put on the orifice or mouth of the veine or arterie a little burnt linnen cloath, or scraped lint, lay vpon that a plaister agglutinatiue that is, vvhich hath vertue to knit and ioine together vppon that lay a thicke enfolded linnen cloath to the end that the band or rovvler may vvith greater ease keepe fast the veine or arterie.
The olde Phisitions hane left in their vvritings that vve must feare the arterie least the blood vvill not bee staied, but I haue alwaies stayed it by this binding vvithout causing more paine to the sicke partie.
[p. 24. Section 1]
Myopiasis, myopia, catopsis is vvhen one cannot see one thing, but such as be verie neere and euen offered vnto his eyes vvith great difficultie pearcing those vvhich are farre of.
Notvvithstanding Aristotle imputeth the cause to the great quantitie, by marking litle children to be most subiect vnto it, by reason of the moysture of their braines: in like manner those which haue black eies are more moist, as on the contrarie the like is seene in old men, because of their drinesse they vvhich haue blevv or gray, or skie coloured eies are subject to the disease glaucoma, vvhich hath the same cause from drinesse that the membrane vuea hath from moysture, if vve may so compare one vvith an another.
For such as haue them standing foorth cannot see farre, and couttarivvise they vvhich haue them sunk into their circles doe more easilie discerne things present before them, because the spirite cannot bee so easilie scattered, vvhen the eie is setled deeplie as vvhen it standeth out.
[p. 27. Section 1.]
Of the continual dimnes, diminishing or hinderance of the sight, called in greek amblyopia, in latin, hebetudo, or caligatio.
Ambliopia is a continuall dimnesse & hinderance of teh sight, vvithout any appearance of any thing in the eie: notvvithstanding the sight is darkened, and yet no hurt to be perceiued in the membranes, neyther appeareth the apple of the eye made lesser or greater, oro hauing anie other disorder. This disease hapneth either vvhen the spirites are grosse, or the membranes are thick and straight or the humors of the eye are not only grosse, but also slimie.
For old folke besides the thicknes of the membranes, and humors, haue the spirites of sight much vveakened, and in fine diminished and lost.
R. succi apii, foenic. verbase. chamedr. pimpinell. gariophil, saluiae, chelidon, rutae, centinod. morsus gall, farinae, volat. ana. [non-Latin alphabet] i. piperis crasso modo irii i, nucis moschatae, ligni aloes ana. [non-Latin alphabet] iii.
Auicen praiseth fumes made with wine poured vpon a bricke, or rather a decoction made vvith hearbes hauing vertue to dissolue, as Hissope, Melilor, Camomill, Sage, Rosemary, and such like: vvhereof may be made also little fomentations as R. of the leaues of Sage Maiora, Hissope, ana. m. [non-Latin alphabet] Betony, eiebright an m.i. of leaues of Camomill, Melilot, Roses, ana. p. [non-Latin alphabet] of Anyseedes and fenill [non-Latin alphabet] seeth them in wine and water equally to be vsed with a sponge, and make this your collirium, R. of water fo Selandine and eiebright ana. [non-Latin alphabet] i. water of Hissope [non-Latin alphabet] in vvhich dissolue Myrrh [non-Latin alphabet] Beniamin, Stirac. Calamitae, ana. [non-Latin alphabet] ij. vvhen you haue vsed your fomentationapply this eie-salue to the part.
[p. 34. Section 3]
Of the squint eye, called in greek Strabismus, in latin Strabositas or oculi distortio.
Strabismus is a wresting or writhing, which draweth the sight vnequall: or a conuulsion and pulling of the muscles which moue the eye: or when some muscles of the eye are loosed, and the contrary to them shortened, in such sort, that is dravven either vpvvard, or downevvard, to the right side, or to the left.
But commonly it is a malladie most incidentvnto childrenpresently after their birth, through the negligence of the Nurce, who setteth the cradle in which the infant lieth on the side of the light, & not directly contrary vnto it which maketh the children looking to the light to turne the eie on the side to it, and thus by continuance they are accustomed to turne their eie awry when the muscle haue attained to a habite, because one sort of them doth so obeye and follovv the contrary which dravv them that these do grovv longer the others shorter.
Paulus AEgineta appointed a maske for such as had this disease, to the ende they might looke alwaies straight, which is most fit for yong children. The portrayture vvith the description is in Ambrose Pare his booke, which without knowledge of the same set downe in the old writers hath very wittely & cunningly inuented the sayd maske & instrument as her hath done many other, thorough the longer obseruation vvhich he had in viewing many diseases. Moreouer the Nurse shall drawe her hand ouer the childes eies oftentimes to repaire the sight. And following the consaile of the old writers there shalbe some redde thing hanged and fastened vpon the temples, or on the contrary eare to the wresting of the eye, that the childe may to that turne the eye, and so amende the deformed sight. In like maner the cradle shalbee set vvith the contrary side to the light.
[Section 2. The Diseases of the whole Eie. p. 46]
Of the hardnesse of the eye, or harde blearednesse called in greeke Scleropthalmia, in latin lippitudo dura, or siccitas oculi.
Scleropthalmia is vvhen the eye-lyddes are more harde then accustomablye they vse to bee, and also the eye, more flovve in mouing, more redde, more paynefull, especyallie when one awaketh, the eye-liddes can hardely bee opened, yet no moysture issueth from them and in teh corners of the eyes sticketh some fleume dryed and folded together: and vvhen wee vvoulde turne the eye-lidde, wee cannot doe it easilye, because of the great hardnesse, neyther canne vvee shutte it vvithout paine, except wee take the aduauntage.
This affecte happeneth by the flovvying of a grosse humour, or after a great inflammation of the eye, when the slimie humour is dryed, eyther of it selfe or by the heate, or it befalleth thorough the default of the Chirurgian, vvho hath applied ouer drying medicines.
In curing hereof, the same remedies are verie conuenient which are before appointed for teh drie blearednesse, sith they onely differ in greatnesse the one and the other being drie, Auicen extolleth greatly these remedyes to applye a Fomentation vnto the eye with sponges wette in warme water, and after to put vpon the eye the white of an egge with oyle of Roses. And vvhere teh humour is thicke and very salte hee vseth the mucylage of Fenegreeke dravven in milke, and such remedies as are of povver and vertue to scatter * mollifye such an humour. For my part I haue oftentimes tryed vnguentum rosatum Mesuae annoynting the eyes vvith it, both within and vvithout, especially at night when hee vvould take his rest.
[Diseases of the Eie-liddes. p. 96.]
Of the shorte or maimed eye-liddes, called in Greeke Coloboma, in Latin mutilation, and after Celsus, curium.
Coloboma is here vsed for any defect & vvant, either in the lippes, eares, nostrels, or eye-liddes, when by nature (as it oftentimes falleth out) these parts are clouen, in such manner as if there had beene some whole piece taken away, and they left maimed.
The cause of this default, is either naturall through the feeblenesse of that facultie and virtue which fashioned the bodie in the wombe, or from vvant and insufficiencie of matter, vvereof those partes vvere framed, or from some other accident, as rottennesse, a carbuncle, or gangrene, which haue eaten & wasted the parte, or by a stroke vvhich hath cutte avvay or made a diuision in the part.
As touching the cure, it is vnpossible to restore that vvante vvhich is in the substaunce: that must be natures vvoorke, not the Chirurgions hande.
But the deformitie of the parte so maimed, may be repaired and recouered if it be but little: if it bee great it receiueth no cure, but he vvhich dealeth vvith it, shal make it more ouglie and ill fauoured then it vvas before the cure. The vvay to amende this faulte, vvhen the eye-lid is some-vvhwat lame and maimed is, that vvhich is vsed in the disease called hare-lips, you muste cunningly vvith a launcet or crooked Vause, take of the skinne from the out vvarde and invvarde partes, vvhich are to be ioyned, and then make fast together the edges of both partes:
[sidenote: Celsus in his 7. booke.]
but if they cannot conueniently touch eche other, beside this pulling avvay of the skinne, there must be made tvvo crosse incisions on both sides, as vvee haue before sayde in the hares eye, vvich shall bee turned from the vvound, cutting onely the vppermost parte of the skinne.
[sidenote: Ambrose Pare]
VVhen this is done, there shall be a needle thrust through both the lippes and edges vvithout touching the gristle, and the threade shall bee made fast on eche side as in the Hares-lippes, vvhich Ambrose Pare hath largely set foorth, plainely laying open the portraiture and fashion of that vvhole vvorke.
[Diseases of the apple of the eie. Continued. p. 156.]
Of the webbe or cataract, called in greeke hypochyma, in latine, suffusio, gutta, aqua, imaginatio.
Hypochyma is an heape of superfluous humours made thicke, like to a little skinne betweene the horny membrane and the chrystalline humor, directly vpon the apple of the eye, swimming aboue the waterish humour in that place which Celsus affirmeth to be void and empty. It hindereth the sight, or at least the discerning and judging of such things as are before our eies.
[sidenote: Differences herein.]
Fernelius appointeth the place of it betweene the membrane Vuea, and the Christalline humour. The differences of it is borrowed from the quantitie or qualitie. From the quantitie, when it is whole, couering all the compasse of the apple of the eie, in such sorte, that the partie cannot see any thing.
[sidenote: How it commeth to passe that onely some part of the object is seene]
Sometimes it couereth onely halfe of the apple of the eie, or some part of it either aboue or beneath, or in the middest in such maner that that onely part of the thing before our face can be discerned which is placed against the part of the eie which is free from this disease, whereby it falleth out oftentimes, that either the partie seeth nothing, or onely some part of thinges. For if that which is offered to the sight be set before the part affected fully, he seeth nothing, but if hee prie at it with that part of the eie which is sounde he may see clearely.
[sidenote: The cataract in the middest of the eie.]
Nowe if the spotte or webbe be in the middest of the eie not touching the edges or borders thereof, euen as a pricke in the middest of a circle, then the partie seeth onely the extremitieand edges of thinges, in the raiddest thereof supposing there is a windowe, or couering, or some darke place.
[sidenote: Differences from the qualitie.]
The differences which are drawen from the qualities, are either from their essence and substaunce, sith some are thinne, slender, and cleare, thorough the which the light of teh Sunne may bee discerned, others are thicke and grosse: or from their colour, sith some are like brasse, others white like Plaster or Pearles, others pale coloured, mixed of greene and white, or greene and yeallowe, others like gold, others blacke, others resembling ashes.
Amongest the Arabians, cataracta, suffusio, aqua, gutta, imaginatio are vsed for the same thinges, herein onely is the difference,
that imaginatio is called by Auicen, gutta zala, as it were the beginning of a webbe or cataract, because we imagine vve see that which in deede we see not, when the cataract is as thin and slender as a spiders web.
[sidenote: Aqua & Gutta]
It is then named, aqua and gutta when the cataract beginneth to receeiue some forme enlarging and running abroad like water:
[sidenote: Gutta obscura.]
but vvhen it is thicke and ripe, and harder, it is called a cataract, and of Auicen gutta obscura.
The causes hereof may be a fall, stroake, heate, colde, paine, by vvhose meanes the humor is drawne and gathered thither, or rather vapours and humours ascending to the braine, and from thence descending to the eyes, which in processe of time, and by reason of colde are chaunged into vvater, and in sine become thicke and congealed. In like sorte this maladie may proceed of ill digested nourishment in the eye, or if the nourishment haue beene good, yet the superfluitie of it hath not bene auoyded, which is an excrement of the third digestion.
Fernelius thinketh the cause thereof to bee a course of humors descending by little and little vpon the sinewe of the sight, which in the beginning cannot be perceiued:
[sidenote: A cataract engendred in one day.]
notvvithstanding hee boldly affirmeth to haue seene a cataract made & framed in one day. For (saith he) if at one moment a grosse slimie humour maye fall vpon the sinevve of sight, wherupon ensueth the losse of the vvhole sight, why, maye it not sodainly ingender a perfect cataract, hauing before time had recourse vppon the apple of the eye?
[sidenote: Signes of the cataract beginning.]
Novve vvhen the vvebe or cataract beginneth, these signes and tokens are incident to the diseased. They imagine there are before their eyes little darke things resembling flies: others suppose they see haires, others threades of vvooll, others spiders webbes, others thinke they beholde a circle about the candles vvhen they are light, and sometimes tvvo candles for one. VVhen these thinges doe thus fall out, if you looke vpon the apple of the eye, it appeareth cleare and pure, but if you beholde and vievve it more nearely, it will seeme somevvhwat troubled, and if you compare it with the other eye, which is sound, it vvil appeare somevvhat appalled. It hath sometime the colour of the sea as the disease increaseth.
[sidenote: Predictions on couching cataracts.]
Concerning praedictions, and foretelling of the euent which vvil ensue, those vvhich are like to rustie iron or pearles, or haue a greene or ashe colour or resemble a turquoise, or sea water, are fit to be couched: on teh contrary, those vvhich are like to chalice, lead, citrons, blacke or yelowe, cannot be couched with a needle.
[sidenote: Consideration of the substance.]
Beside their colour the substaunce is to bee examined whether it bee fitte and prepared: for that which is enlarged and spread abroade without seperating into pieces, returning to his former figure & greatnes is knowne to be curable by this his ripeness. But if it bee scattered into pieces when it is spreadde abroade, it is not yet ready nor fitte to bee couched. Neither may you deale vvith that vvhich is not stretched forth in breadth and largenesse, sith it is an euident signe tha tthe sinevve of sight is stopped, vvhereby the spirite vvhich causeth sight shoulde bee conuayed forth as vvith a blast made larger: for it is but lost labour sith hee coulde not see any thing albeit that vvere remooued.
[How to know if the sinew of sight bee stopped.]
Thus you maye make proofe hereof, if the eie being shutte hee rubbe gently vpon the eie-lidde vvith his fingers turning it sometyme to this side, sometyme ot that, and then lifting vppe the eielidde sodainely, consider, if the cataract doe spreadde abroade and returne againe presently or not. The same obseruation you maye take by closing the other eie, wherein is no cataract: for in thus doing you shall perceiue the spirites inlarged in that which ought to haue beene caried to both the eies.
[sidenote: The worst cataract.]
That cataract is the worst, which commeth either by great sickenesse, or extreme ache in the head, or by a grieuous stroake or wounde. It is incurable in old men and children which without this imperfection haue their sight decayed. Onely age is a sufficient meane to receiue cure in a cataract if it bee full ripe and the eie be neither too little, not sunke downe deepe into the head.
[sidenote: Cure in the beginning.]
Concerning the cure, if it be in the beginning of this disease, you shall labour to preuent the further increase thereof by good order of Diet, and bloudletting in the Fore heade, Temples and Arme, by Purging, Cupping, Cauterizing, applying of a Seton, and other remidies to be kept in the mouth, or putte into the nose. And touching particular remedies, these salues following are highlie praised. R. terebinth. lib. [non-Latin alphabet.] Sulph. [non-Latin alphabet] mellis ros [non-Latin alphabet] iiij. plantag. & arnogloss, euphras. chelidon. ana.m.ii.let them be altogether distilled in an alembicke of glasse, or this R. zinzib, cinamom, garioph nucis mosob.gran.parad.ana.[non-Latin alphabet] folior.saluiae, m ii. cardam. mastic. cubeb. galang. rorism, maioram, lauand, meliss. beton. an. [non-Latin alphabet]lette them soake in foure pound of excellent wine, by the space of ten dayes, then distill them. Put tvvo or three droppes of this water into the eye, continuing this order a sufficient time. But if all the afore-saide meanes both generall and speciall bee not able to heale the cataract, it shall growe vntill it be ripe, without applying any other medicine vnto it. VVhen it is ripe, vvhich may be knovvn by the signes before set dovvne, then enterprise the worke,
[sidenote: What time is best to couch the cataract.]
but vvith this caueat, that you haue diligent regarde to the time of the yeare, vvherein this maye be most fitly atchieued, vvhich is especially the spring time, then sommer, and also if necessitie so require, and the patient be vvilling, vvinter, or the fall of the leafe. But aboue all other things do not aduenture to couch a cataract, either on a rainy, windy, very hoat, or verie colde day. For we haue learned by experience, that the couching of them at such a time stireth vp greate, yea almost intollerable paines in the head.
[sidenote: The patients diet sober.]
Therefore vvhen you haue chosen a conuenient time, the partie must eate little, and drinke water, or some other thinne drinke, abstaining from vvine by the space of tvvoo or three dayes before you atttempt the couching of it, and especially on the day before, his eating and drinking must bee vvith marueilous sobrietie. This being done, let him be set in a light place, hauing his face turned tovvard the Chirurgian, and the light comming directly vppon him, let one holde his heade stedfastly vvithout moouing: for anye little motion of it may bring blindnes vvithout recouerie. The Chirurgian must haue a higher seate then the patient. The affected eye must be kept open, and the sound eye couered vvith a little linnen cloth. Let the Chirurgian rubbe the right eye vvith the left hand, before he begin his vvorke, or rather lette some childe hauing a very cleane mouth chevv fenell or ani-seeds, which vvhen he hath spitte foorth, lette him breath vpon the diseased parte, that by this meanes the cataract may be made more thinne, and smaller. VVhen you haue proceeded thus far, bid him turne the eie which hath the cataract tovvard his nose, as if he would looke vpon him and presently put your needle vnto it, which must be sharp pointed, not slender flatte, nor round, to the end it may enter & pierce more easily, & that the roundnes thereof cause it not to slip vpon the cataract, then thrust it straight inward, or ouerthwart the membranes named coniunctiua & cornea, in the middest of the blacke of the eie, at the corner which is nearer to the temples guiding & directing it vpon the middest o fthe cataract, so that no veine be hurte:
neuerthelesse you must thrust boldlye without feare, sith the place is there void, least after it be entred in, the Chirurgian though he be cunning, bee deceiued, if he lift it vp with the needle, & perceiueth nothing to resist it. Novve when the needle is thrust through, it must be staied on the stop of the cataract, & by little and little turned gently to bring the cataract toward the lowest part of the apple of the eie: & when it is couched there, you shall presse it downe very hard, tha tit may abyde in that place. If it doe remaine there, the cure is perfect, if it ascend vp again, then with the same needle breake and cut it into many pieces, which wil cause lesse hindrance, and require lesse roome. After this draw out the needle, & lay with in the eie the white of an egge, vvith a linnen cloth folded together, and with out apply something to preuent inflammation, with a roller binding it vp.
[sidenote: The patient must be quiet, and vse abstinence.]
These things ended, the sick party must remaine quiet without stirring, lying in his bed, without mouing his head anie way, or verie little, not seeing any great light for a certaine time, abstayning from meate, supping onely thin broth by the space of sixeor seauen dayes, vvithout chewing anie meate with his teeth, because it might dravve down humours to the eye, and make the cataract ascende agayne. VVhen the inflammation is ceased, you shall order the patient as if hee vvere grieuouslie vvounded. He maye not bee dressed, or the eye vnrolled, vntill the second or thirde daie after the couching of the cataract, vnlesse there happen any inflammation, or great paine.
[sidenote: Great light is hurtfull.]
VVhen you will dresse it, shutte the windovves, and sette a candle lighted behind him, and not before his eyes, or rather farre of from him on the side, least the great light sodainly offerred to his sight, may trouble the eye, & flare vp the cataract.
[sidenote: Flux of blood.]
Novve, sometime in couching of cataracts, there happeneth a fluxe of bloud within the eie, in such sorte, that the humors seeme all redde. This ariseth of bloud issuing out of some little veine or arterie which is cutte or pricked: this bloud mingling with the vvaterish humour, giueth it this red colour, and as it vvere dryeth it so, that the Chirurgian if he haue not seene the like euent, and all that stande by would iudge the eye bursten and vtterly lost: notvvithstanding about two or three dayes after, when the patient shall be dressed, this bloud will be so vvasted, that no token thereof vvill appeare. There are some cataracts vvhich vanish and scatter assoone as the needle is applyed to couch them, because they are not harde and solide to beare the needle, vvhich goeth thorow them as it vvere a greene cheese, vvhereof they are commonly called cataract lacteae, because their colour and substaunce resembleth milke. That the Chirurgian maye meete vvith this inconuenience, he must labour to loose it, pressing it vvith his needle on euerie side: for by this meanes I haue seene and proued sometime the grossest parte of the cataract to fall avvay, and come lovver, the thinner parte to bee loosed and consumed, and in the end the partie hath recouered his sight.
Albucrasis doth vvrite, that it vvas reported in his time, one had deuised to picke the eye with an hollovve needle, and by the hollownesse of it hee coulde rayse vp and dravve foorth the humour of the cataract. Notvvithstanding I thinke he might sooner raise and dravv foorth the vvaterish humour, then the cataract, vvhen it is ripe and readie to bee couched, because it is an harde skinne.
The seuenth Section, intreating of those diseases, which are incident to the humors of the eies.
Of greene, pale, or gray eyes, called in greeke glaucoma, or glaucosis, in latin glacuoma, or caesii oculi, and by the interpretour of Auicen, viridtas oculi: also of the wolues-eie, or curst eie in greeke aethemoma, in latine raui oculi.
[sidenote: Two significations of glaucoma.]
Glaucoma is vsed in two sences: for it is taken vnproperly for a webbe cataract or spot which is gathered and dried round about the apple of the eie:
which signification some of the olde phisitions haue vsed this worde as Aegineta writeth saying, the auncient writers haue supposed Glaucoma and hypochyma to bee one and the same disease, which haue beene onely distinguished by the new writers.
Neither doth Galen much discent from this opionion, affirming glaucoma to be like to the webbe or cataract, and that both of them may bee comprehended vnder the same name.
Neuerthelesse (as Gorraeus sayth) it followeth not that they are like.
[sidenote: The difference between glaucoma and hipochima.]
For the cataract is a collection and an heape of other humors, then of those vvhich are naturally in the eye, flovving vnto it from some other place: but glaucoma is properlye vsed when the Cristaline humor is dry and thicke, and the colour of it is green vvhereupon the eies seeme greene or pale. Moreouer, the cataractes are alvvaies so greate that they ouerspreade and couer thevvhole apple of the eie, and hinder the vvholesight: but glaucoma possesseth all teh Christaline humour, and it is drie in euery part, and by reason of the drinesse it grovveth so thicke.
Besides these, cataractes may be cured, but Glaucoma is vncurable, when it hath once attained to perfection as AEgineta writeth concerning the opinion of Rufus.
VVhen this affection is onely found in one eye, it is called in greeke Heteroglaucosis, as if that party had vnlike eyes, & of tvvo parrishes.
Ther is incident to the Christaline humor, an other maladie, named in greek Argyrias, in latine, albedo in Christilloide, vvhich is a vvhite spotte grovving vppon the Christaline humoure, vvhich is easily perceiued if you looke vpon the ey: it hindreth the sight more or lesse, as it is greater or smaller, and may bee accompted the beginner and messenger of glaucoma. In olde time, and euen in these dayes also, greene or gray eyes, called in greeke glauci, in latin caesi, vvere much commended in vvomen whereupon in Homer Miuerua is alwaies sirnamed glaucopis, that is, hauing greene or gray eyes.
[sidenote: The diuersitie of opinions.]
Although Aegineta assigne the cause of this disease vnto moysture, yet Galen and Hippocrates impute it to drynesse, for vvhich cause olde folke are subject vnto it.
[sidenote: Arist. 5. lib de generat animal.]
Some haue imagined that a greene colour intermedled with the Crystalline humour causeth this disease, and maketh this gray or azure color called glaucoma. The cure is to be taken in hand in this order. VVhen you perceiue this maladie beginning, vvhich is euident in teh Crystalline humour appearing some-vvhwat gray, first vse your general cure, then such medicines as may comfort and staye the Crystalline humour, least it waxe dry and bee frosen: as moist and comfortable fomentations. R. of the toppes of mallovves, holyhocke, violets. ana. m. i. ey-bright, selandine, an. m. [non-Latin alphabet] of camomill flowers, and melilot, an p. [non-Latin alphabet] line-seeds, [non-Latin alphabet] ii. faenel and ani-seeds in [non-Latin alphabet] i. seeth them for a fomentaton. This collirium shall be put into the eye. Take of the mucilage of quince, and line-seed dravvn in water of pellitorie on the vvall, ana. [non-Latin alphabet] i. of faenell and eye-bright vvater ana [non-Latin alphabet] dissolue herein of myrrhe and aloes, ana. [non-Latin alphabet], of beniamin and storax calamit, ana. [non-Latin alphabet] ii. make a salue of all these. This afore-named ingredience maye be distilled, and the vvater of it will bee verie profitable. Those medicins which haue vertue to dissolue cataractes and vvebbes in their beginning may bee in this case discreetely vsed, as also hoate bread taken out of the ouen, vvherein is baked the povvder of ani-seedes and ffaenell, may be vvell applyed in this order. Diuide the breade in the middest, and laye it vpon teh eye so hoat as the partie can abide it, and let it so remaine vpon the eie a good space. The breath of a sounde and cleane person vvhich hath chewed faenell or ani-seede is not vnprofitable in this case. The distilled vvater of faenell and ani seedes is most singular, if it be vvisely vsed and so are the mucilages of quince, Fenegreeke, and linseedes dravven in teh aforesayd vvaters.
There happeneth to the eye an other affection called in greeke, AEthemoma, in latine, raui oculi, in French the vvolues eye, or euill boy, and I thinke vvee callit in Englishe, the curst eye, or euill eye, or sometimes greedye eye, vvhiche is, vvhen the humors are all blacke, and thereupon the vvhole eye is blacke. In curing fo this seeing it differeth little from glaucoma, you shall haue recourse both to generall and speciall medicines sette dovvne for that disease.
[sidenote: Occulus leoninus.]
Fernellius vvritethof an other affect incident to the eye, called in Latine, Leoninus oculus the Lyons eye in french, the brasen eye, vvhen the eie is redde, cruell, proude, resembling sparkes of fire, as vve beholde in a Lyon, and in them vvhich haue the leprosie. Seeing this affection is ioyned with the leprosie, before you aduenture the helping thereof, you must cure the leprosie it selfe.